Calcium Indicators are small molecules that can chelate calcium ions. All these molecules are based on an EGTA homologue called BAPTA (with exception of coelenterazines), with high selectivity for calcium (Ca) ions versus magnesium (Mg) ions. This group of indicators includes fura-2, indo-1, fluo-3, BTC, Rhod-2, etc. These dyes are generally used with the chelator carboxyl groups masked as acetoxymethyl esters, in order to render the molecule lipophilic and to allow easy entrance into the cell. Once the indicator is in the cell, cellular esterases will free the carboxyl and the indicator will be able to bind calcium.
These polymers have surfactant properties that make them useful in industrial applications. Among other things, they can be used to increase the water solubility of hydrophobic, oily substances or otherwise increase the miscibility of two substances with different hydrophobicities.leads to less stressful shear conditions for cells in reactors.
Fluorescent probes such as Boronic acid conjugate for modification of vicinal diols of alcohole, as Aminooxy, hydrazide/Hydrazine counjugates for midification of Aldehyde/Ketone, as Free acid conjugate for modification of any molecules containing amino group, as Diazomethane for modification of any molecule containing any kind of free acid.